Macer, Darryl Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba Science City, Japan.
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- Animal rights
- Human reproductive technologies
- Genetic testing
- Gene therapy
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A discipline concerned with the application of ethics to biological problems, especially in the field of medicine. Bioethics is a broad term that encompasses the environmental, ethical, legal, and social implications of agriculture, life sciences, and medicine. The rapidity of progress in genetics and genome mapping, spurred by the Human Genome Project, is reforming the whole process of science and is providing new tools for use in technology, but it also is raising many questions for society. Bioethical issues arising from recent applications of science include genetic engineering of microorganisms, plants, and animals; in vitro fertilization; cloning; xenotransplantation; gene therapy; genetic testing; and stem cell research (Fig. 1). See also: Agricultural science (plant); Biotechnology; Cloning; Genetic engineering; Genetic mapping; Genetics; Human genetics; Human genome; Medicine; Reproductive technology; Stem cells; Transplantation biology; Xenotransplantation
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