Krefeld, William J. Formerly, Columbia University, New York, New York.
Bowman, Waldo G. Formerly, Editor, "Engineering News Record."
- Scratch hardness
- File-test hardness
- Brinell hardness
- Vickers hardness
- Rockwell hardness
- Monotron hardness
- Shore Scleroscope hardness
- Herbert pendulum hardness
- Hardness of wood
- Hardness of paving
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
Arbitrarily defined measures of the resistance of a material to indentation under static or dynamic load, to scratch, abrasion, or wear, or to cutting or drilling. Standardized tests compare similar materials according to the particular aspect of hardness measured by the test. Widely used tests for metals are Brinell, Rockwell, and Scleroscope tests, with modifications depending upon the size or condition of the material. Indentation tests compare species of wood or flooring materials, and abrasion tests serve as an index of performance of stones and paving materials.
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