Stanton, Anthony P. Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
- History of HUDs
- Components of HUDs
- Effectiveness of HUDs
- HUDs in automobiles
- Helmet-mounted HUDs
- Virtual retinal displays
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
Heads-up displays (HUDs) are graphic displays that do not require users to divert their eyes from their current fields of view. They were first developed for military aviation. Today, the scope of their application has expanded dramatically, notably to civilian aircraft and automobiles, as well as to personal devices. Early HUDs were stationary devices permanently mounted in a cockpit; many still are. However, for some applications mobility is essential, and helmet-mounted displays, a subset of HUDs, were developed. As technology improved, virtual retinal displays were developed. These small devices write high-resolution images directly onto the viewer's retina and significantly extend the potential applications for HUDs.
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