Graves, Arthur H. Formerly, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut.
Davis, Kenneth P. Formerly, School of Forestry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
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The genus Tsuga of the pine family, characterized by flattened needles with two white lines beneath the needlelike leaves, which have distinct short stalks. The cones of hemlock are small and pendent (see illustration). Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) grows to a height of about 90 ft (27 m) and occurs in eastern Canada, the Great Lakes region, and the Appalachians. Minutely toothed leaves, some of the smaller ones growing upside down, are characteristic of this species (see illustration). The wood is hard and strong, and is used for construction, boxes, crates, and paper pulp. The Janka hardness for eastern hemlock is 500 lb-force (227 kg-force); its density is 27 lb/ft3 (432 kg/m3). The bark is one of the principal domestic sources of tannin. The eastern hemlock is a common ornamental tree. See also: Ornamental plants; Pinales
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