Immune checkpoint blockade
Duda, Dan G. Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.
- Cytotoxic T cells
- T-cell activation
- Immune checkpoints in cancer
- Immune checkpoint blockade to treat cancer
- Challenges and future directions
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
A group of inhibitory pathways in immune cells that maintain self-tolerance and modulate T-cell immune responses to avoid tissue damage and autoimmunity. The physiologic function of immune checkpoints is to provide coinhibitory signals to the effector T cells (thymus-derived lymphocytes), counteract the costimulatory signals, and avoid autoimmunity and the destructive effects of excessive inflammatory responses. They are particularly important for the resolution phase of wound healing, and it has been demonstrated clinically that they may also play key roles in pathology. Many malignant tumors use at least some of the immune checkpoints [for example, programmed cell death 1 protein (PD-1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4)] to successfully evade the host immune system and grow and spread throughout the body. Discovery of this mechanism opened new avenues for the therapy of cancer using immune checkpoint blockade, which has dramatically changed the landscape of oncology in a period of only a few years. See also: Autoimmunity; Cancer; Cellular immunology; Immunity; Immunologic cytotoxicity; Immunology; Immunotherapy; Oncology; Tumor
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Its dedicated editorial team is led by Sagan Award winner John Rennie. Contributors include more than 9000 highly qualified scientists and 42 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8500 articles and Research Reviews covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 17,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information