Cronquist, Arthur Formerly, New York Botanical Garden, New York, New York.
Barkley, Theodore M. Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas.
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An order of flowering plants, division Magnoliophyta (Angiospermae), in the subclass Magnoliidae of the class Magnoliopsida (dicotyledons). The order Papaverales consists of two families: Papaveraceae, with approximately 200 species; and Fumariaceae, with about 400 species. Within its subclass, the order is marked by its syncarpous gynoecium, parietal placentation, and only two (seldom three) sepals. Most of the species are herbaceous, and many of them contain isoquinoline alkaloids similar to those in the order Ranunculales. The family Papaveraceae, with regular flowers, numerous stamens, and a well-developed latex system, includes the poppies (Papaver and related genera; see illustration), bloodroot (Sanguinaria), and celandine (Chelidonium). Papaver somniferum is the source of opium. The family Fumariaceae, with four or six stamens, irregular flowers that usually have some of the petals spurred or saccate, and no latex system, includes the bleeding heart [Lamprocapnos (Dicentra) spectabilis] and some other common ornamentals. See also: Magnoliidae; Magnoliophyta; Magnoliopsida; Opiates; Poppy
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