Gränicher, H. Laboratory of Solid State Physics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland.
- Necessary condition
- Matrix formulation
- Electromechanical coupling
- Molecular theory
- Piezoelectric ceramics
- Piezoelectric resonator
- Common applications
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
Electricity, or electric polarity, resulting from the application of mechanical pressure on a dielectric crystal. The application of a mechanical stress produces in certain dielectric (electrically nonconducting) crystals an electric polarization (electric dipole moment per cubic meter) which is proportional to this stress. If the crystal is isolated, this polarization manifests itself as a voltage across the crystal, and if the crystal is short-circuited, a flow of charge can be observed during loading. Conversely, application of a voltage between certain faces of the crystal produces a mechanical distortion of the material. This reciprocal relationship is referred to as the piezoelectric effect. The phenomenon of generation of a voltage under mechanical stress is referred to as the direct piezoelectric effect, and the mechanical strain produced in the crystal under electric stress is called the converse piezoelectric effect. See also: Polarization of dielectrics
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