Doyle, James A. Department of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, California.
- Origin of land plants
- Seed plants
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
The process of biological and organic change within the plant kingdom by which the characteristics of plants differ from generation to generation. Understanding of the course of plant evolution is based on several lines of evidence. The main levels (grades) of evolution have long been clear from comparisons among living plants, but the fossil record has been critical in dating evolutionary events and revealing extinct intermediates between modern groups, which are separated from each other by great morphological gaps (evolutionary changes in many characters). Plant evolution has been clarified by cladistic methods for estimating relationships among both living and fossil groups. These methods attempt to reconstruct the branching of evolutionary lines (phylogeny) by using shared evolutionary innovations (for example, presence of a structure not found in other groups) as evidence that particular organisms are descendants of the same ancestral lineage (a monophyletic group, or clade).
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Its dedicated editorial team is led by Sagan Award winner John Rennie. Contributors include more than 9000 highly qualified scientists and 42 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8500 articles and Research Reviews covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 17,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information