Butler, James R. A. Spey Fishery Board, United Kingdom.
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- Impacts on wild salmonids
- Impacts on the aquatic environment
- Addressing impacts on wild salmonids
- Addressing impacts on the aquatic environment
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
The cultivation and harvesting (aquaculture) of salmon species. The natural range of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, order Salmoniformes; Fig. 1) stretches from Portugal and the northern coast of New England in the United States northward to subarctic Norway, Russia, and Canada. Salmon are anadromous, whereby they breed in freshwater and migrate to sea to feed. Within their range, adult salmon spawn in cool and well-oxygenated streams. Juveniles spend 1–5 years in freshwater before transforming into silvered smolts (Fig. 2). At this stage, they migrate to sea, following ocean currents to feeding grounds in the Atlantic. Once in the sea, salmon grow rapidly, feeding on small fish and crustaceans. After 1–3 more years, the fish reach sexual maturity and migrate with great accuracy to their natal rivers, often spawning in the same tributary where they were born. As a result, salmon stocks have evolved into genetically distinct local populations. See also: Aquaculture; Marine ecology; Migratory behavior; Salmon; Salmoniformes
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