Hazen, Richard Formerly, Hazen and Sawyer, New York, New York.
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- Coagulation and flocculation
- Slow sand filters
- Rapid sand filters
- Diatomaceous earth filters
- Granular activated carbon
- Water softening
- Pressure-driven membranes
- Advanced treatment
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
Physical and chemical processes for making water suitable for human consumption. The purpose of water treatment is to ensure that drinking water is free of pathogens and toxic or harmful chemicals or substances, and acceptably free of turbidity, color, and taste- or odor-producing substances. Excessive hardness and high concentration of dissolved solids also must be reduced. The most commonly used treatment processes are sedimentation, coagulation, filtration, and disinfection (Fig. 1). For water sources containing higher concentrations of contaminants, such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium, disinfection by-product, and other inorganic or organic compounds, pressure-driven membranes and advanced treatment methods are used.
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