West Nile virus
Pierce, Marcia M. Department of Biological Sciences, Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, Kentucky.
- Transmission and epidemiology
- Pathogenesis and symptoms
- Control and prevention
- Treatment and preventive vaccine
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
An arbovirus, first identified in the West Nile area of Uganda in the early 1930s, that has been an increasing threat in North America since the late 1990s. Arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) are carried by arthropods and transmitted to the host through the bite of the insect. West Nile virus (WNV) found its way to North America in 1999, possibly through international travel, the importation of infected birds or mosquitoes, or migration of infected birds. Severe infection with WNV can result in viral encephalitis, a dangerous and sometimes fatal inflammation of the brain. Since 1999, WNV infections in humans, birds, and mosquitoes have been reported from all states except Hawaii, Alaska, and Oregon. In 2004, there were 2539 cases of human WNV infection in 41 states in the United States. The incidence of WNV encephalitis in the United States is seasonal, with peaks corresponding to the times of the year during which adult mosquitoes are active.
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Its dedicated editorial team is led by Sagan Award winner John Rennie. Contributors include more than 9000 highly qualified scientists and 42 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8500 articles and Research Reviews covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 17,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information